What is the history of exam proctoring?

Exam proctoring is the practice of supervising a student or group of students while they take an exam. The goal of exam proctoring is to ensure the integrity of the exam process and to prevent cheating.

The history of exam proctoring can be traced back to ancient civilizations, where scribes would be hired to write down exam questions and supervise students while they took the exam. In the modern era, exam proctoring has taken on many different forms, ranging from in-person supervision by a teacher or proctor to online proctoring using artificial intelligence and other technologies.

Online proctoring has become increasingly popular in recent years due to the widespread adoption of distance learning and online education. Online proctoring can take many forms, including live proctoring, where a proctor monitors the student remotely in real-time, and recorded proctoring, where the exam session is recorded and reviewed by a proctor at a later time. There are also widely accepted methods where technology is blended with human support such as technical assistance being provided to a test taker but then the proctored exam session is fully automated with no live human interaction between a test taker and a proctor.